Python, Javascript and UNIX hacker, open source advocate, IRC addict, general badass and traveler
413 stories
·
7 followers

Friday CK Chart Fest

1 Share

Don’t Bank Peak Inflation

Korean Chip Exports

Cry For Argentina

Japan Running Trade Deficits, WTF?

China Growth Turning Up

Sterling Getting Pounded

Working Age Men Lag Return To Labor Market

World Economy Back To Pre-COVID Levels

Is There Enough Copper To Electrify Transport Sector?

Drought In Treasury Market Liquidity 



Read the whole story
miohtama
76 days ago
reply
Helsinki, Finland
Share this story
Delete

Let me open-source this tool for parsing historic event logs into csv format without requiring you to run your own archive node.

1 Share

I've been recently working on ethereum-datafarm, which represents an open-source tool that parses events from Smart Contracts and stores them in csv format.

https://github.com/Nerolation/ethereum-datafarm

The tool was originally intedent to be used by economics/business students, who want to apply their knowledge on blockchain data but have hard times in setting up archive nodes or parsing bytes. Users can plug in any contract and start parsing. Under the hood, the Etherscan API is used, which is free to use up to quite generous limits.

A sample use case might be plugging in the Uniswap contracts, retrieve prices of certain pairs and then analyse them. Furthermore, it may be the foundation for network analyses, studies on Stablecoins, research on DAOs, goveranance and more.

Enjoy!

submitted by /u/Nerolation to r/ethdev
[link] [comments]
Read the whole story
miohtama
104 days ago
reply
Helsinki, Finland
Share this story
Delete

Belief in Luck and Precognition Around the World

1 Share

Although magical beliefs (such as belief in luck and precognition) are presumably universal, the extent to which such beliefs are embraced likely varies across cultures. We assessed the effect of culture on luck and precognition beliefs in two large-scale multinational studies (Study 1: k = 16, N = 17,664; Study 2: k = 25, N = 4,024). Over and above the effects of demographic factors, culture was a significant predictor of luck and precognition beliefs in both studies. Indeed, when culture was added to demographic models, the variance accounted for in luck and precognition beliefs approximately doubled. Belief in luck and precognition was highest in Latvia and Russia (Study 1) and South Asia (Study 2), and lowest in Protestant Europe (Studies 1 and 2). Thus, beyond the effects of age, gender, education, and religiosity, culture is a significant factor in explaining variance in people’s belief in luck and precognition. Follow-up analyses found a relatively consistent effect of socio-economic development, such that belief in luck and precognition were more prevalent in countries with lower scores on the Human Development Index. There was also some evidence that these beliefs were stronger in more collectivist cultures, but this effect was inconsistent. We discuss the possibility that there are culturally specific historical factors that contribute to relative openness to such beliefs in Russia, Latvia, and South Asia.

That is from a new paper by Emily A. Harris, Taciano L. Milfont, and Matthew J. Hornsey, via the excellent Kevin Lewis.

The post Belief in Luck and Precognition Around the World appeared first on Marginal REVOLUTION.

Read the whole story
miohtama
138 days ago
reply
Helsinki, Finland
Share this story
Delete

A perpetual balance strategy suitable for bear market bottoming

1 Share

In the past, FMZ officially released a perpetual grid strategy, which was popular among users, and the onlookers who traded TRX in real bots have gained a lot of profits in the past year with controllable risks. However, the perpetual grid strategy also has some problems:

  1. It is necessary to set parameters such as initial price, grid spacing, grid value, long-short mode, etc. The settings are cumbersome and have a great impact on profits, making it difficult for novices to set.
  2. The perpetual grid strategy has a high risk of short-selling, while the risk of long-selling is relatively low. Even if the grid value is set to a small value, it will not have a great impact on the short-selling price.
  3. The perpetual contract grid can choose to only go long to avoid the risk of shorting, it seems okay so far. However, it needs to face the problem that the current price exceeds the initial price, resulting in a short position, and the initial price needs to be reset.

I wrote an article on the principle of the balance strategy and the comparison with the grid strategy before, and you can still refer to it now: https://www.fmz.com/digest-topic/5930. The balance strategy always holds positions with a fixed value ratio or value, sells some when it rises, and buys when it falls. It can be run with simple settings. Even if the currency price rises a lot, there is no risk of going short. The problem with the spot balance strategy is that the capital utilization is low, and there is no easy way to increase leverage. And perpetual contracts can solve the problem. If the total capital is 1000, 2000 can be held fixedly, which exceeds the original capital and improves the capital utilization. Another parameter is the adjustment ratio, which controls how much to sacle in or dump the position. If it is set to 0.01, it means that the position is dumped once for 1% increase and scaled in once for 1% decrease.

For beginners, the balance strategy is highly recommended. The operation is simple, just set a parameter of holding ratio or position value, and you can run it mindlessly without worrying about constant price increases. Those with certain experience can choose the grid strategy, and decide the upper and lower limits of fluctuations and the funds per grid, so as to improve the utilization of funds and obtain maximum profits.

In order to facilitate the backtesting of more trading pairs, this document will show the complete backtesting process, and users can adjust different parameters and trading pairs for comparison. (The version is Python3, and an agent is required to download the quotation. Users can download Anancoda3 by themselves or run it through Google's colab)

import requests
from datetime import date,datetime
import time
import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import requests, zipfile, io
%matplotlib inline
## Current trading pairs
Info = requests.get('https://fapi.binance.com/fapi/v1/exchangeInfo')
symbols = [s['symbol'] for s in Info.json()['symbols']]
symbols = list(set(filter(lambda x: x[-4:] == 'USDT', [s.split('_')[0] for s in symbols]))-
                 set(['1000SHIBUSDT','1000XECUSDT','BTCDOMUSDT','DEFIUSDT','BTCSTUSDT'])) + ['SHIBUSDT','XECUSDT']
print(symbols)
['FLMUSDT', 'ICPUSDT', 'CHZUSDT', 'APEUSDT', 'DARUSDT', 'TLMUSDT', 'ETHUSDT', 'STMXUSDT', 'ENJUSDT', 'LINKUSDT', 'OGNUSDT', 'RSRUSDT', 'QTUMUSDT', 'UNIUSDT', 'BNBUSDT', 'XLMUSDT', 'ATOMUSDT', 'LPTUSDT', 'UNFIUSDT', 'DASHUSDT', 'BTCUSDT', 'NEOUSDT', 'AAVEUSDT', 'DUSKUSDT', 'XRPUSDT', 'IOTXUSDT', 'CVCUSDT', 'SANDUSDT', 'XTZUSDT', 'IOTAUSDT', 'BELUSDT', 'MANAUSDT', 'IOSTUSDT', 'IMXUSDT', 'THETAUSDT', 'SCUSDT', 'DOGEUSDT', 'CELOUSDT', 'BNXUSDT', 'SNXUSDT', 'ZRXUSDT', 'HBARUSDT', 'DOTUSDT', 'ANKRUSDT', 'CELRUSDT', 'BAKEUSDT', 'GALUSDT', 'ICXUSDT', 'LRCUSDT', 'AVAXUSDT', 'C98USDT', 'MTLUSDT', 'FTTUSDT', 'MASKUSDT', 'RLCUSDT', 'MATICUSDT', 'COMPUSDT', 'BLZUSDT', 'CRVUSDT', 'ZECUSDT', 'RUNEUSDT', 'LITUSDT', 'ONEUSDT', 'ADAUSDT', 'NKNUSDT', 'LTCUSDT', 'ATAUSDT', 'GALAUSDT', 'BALUSDT', 'ROSEUSDT', 'EOSUSDT', 'YFIUSDT', 'SKLUSDT', 'BANDUSDT', 'ALGOUSDT', 'NEARUSDT', 'AXSUSDT', 'KSMUSDT', 'AUDIOUSDT', 'SRMUSDT', 'HNTUSDT', 'MKRUSDT', 'KLAYUSDT', 'FLOWUSDT', 'STORJUSDT', 'BCHUSDT', 'DYDXUSDT', 'ARUSDT', 'GMTUSDT', 'CHRUSDT', 'API3USDT', 'VETUSDT', 'KAVAUSDT', 'WAVESUSDT', 'EGLDUSDT', 'SFPUSDT', 'RENUSDT', 'SUSHIUSDT', 'SOLUSDT', 'RVNUSDT', 'ONTUSDT', 'BTSUSDT', 'ZILUSDT', 'GTCUSDT', 'ZENUSDT', 'ALICEUSDT', 'ETCUSDT', 'TRXUSDT', 'TOMOUSDT', 'FILUSDT', 'ARPAUSDT', 'CTKUSDT', 'BATUSDT', 'SXPUSDT', '1INCHUSDT', 'HOTUSDT', 'WOOUSDT', 'LINAUSDT', 'REEFUSDT', 'GRTUSDT', 'RAYUSDT', 'COTIUSDT', 'XMRUSDT', 'PEOPLEUSDT', 'OCEANUSDT', 'JASMYUSDT', 'TRBUSDT', 'ANTUSDT', 'XEMUSDT', 'DGBUSDT', 'ENSUSDT', 'OMGUSDT', 'ALPHAUSDT', 'FTMUSDT', 'DENTUSDT', 'KNCUSDT', 'CTSIUSDT', 'SHIBUSDT', 'XECUSDT']
#Get the function of the K-line of any period
def GetKlines(symbol='BTCUSDT',start='2020-8-10',end='2021-8-10',period='1h',base='fapi',v = 'v1'):
    Klines = []
    start_time = int(time.mktime(datetime.strptime(start, "%Y-%m-%d").timetuple()))*1000 + 8*60*60*1000
    end_time =  min(int(time.mktime(datetime.strptime(end, "%Y-%m-%d").timetuple()))*1000 + 8*60*60*1000,time.time()*1000)
    intervel_map = {'m':60*1000,'h':60*60*1000,'d':24*60*60*1000}
    while start_time < end_time:
        mid_time = start_time+1000*int(period[:-1])*intervel_map[period[-1]]
        url = 'https://'+base+'.binance.com/'+base+'/'+v+'/klines?symbol=%s&interval=%s&startTime=%s&endTime=%s&limit=1000'%(symbol,period,start_time,mid_time)
        #print(url)
        res = requests.get(url)
        res_list = res.json()
        if type(res_list) == list and len(res_list) > 0:
            start_time = res_list[-1][0]+int(period[:-1])*intervel_map[period[-1]]
            Klines += res_list
        if type(res_list) == list and len(res_list) == 0:
            start_time = start_time+1000*int(period[:-1])*intervel_map[period[-1]]
        if mid_time >= end_time:
            break

    df = pd.DataFrame(Klines,columns=['time','open','high','low','close','amount','end_time','volume','count','buy_amount','buy_volume','null']).astype('float')
    df.index = pd.to_datetime(df.time,unit='ms')
    return df

By downloading the closing prices of all trading pairs from 2021 to the present, we can observe the changes in the overall market index: 2021 to 2022 is undoubtedly a bull market, and the index once rose by 14 times. It can be said that gold is everywhere, and many coins have risen hundreds of times. However, in 2022, the bear market that has lasted for half a year has begun, with the index plunging 80%, and dozens of coins have withdrawn by more than 90%. Such pump-and-dump reflects the enormous risk of grid strategies.
The index is currently at around 3, which is still a 200% gain compared to the beginning of 2021, and it should be a relative bottom at the moment, considering the development of the market.

Currencies whose highest price has increased more than 10 times since the beginning of the year:

'MKRUSDT': 10.294, 'CRVUSDT': 10.513, 'STORJUSDT': 10.674, 'SKLUSDT': 11.009, 'CVCUSDT': 11.026, 'SRMUSDT': 11.031, 'QTUMUSDT': 12.066, 'ALPHAUSDT': 12.103, 'ZENUSDT': 12.631, 'VETUSDT': 13.296, 'ROSEUSDT': 13.429, 'FTTUSDT': 13.705, 'IOSTUSDT': 13.786, 'COTIUSDT': 13.958, 'NEARUSDT': 14.855, 'HBARUSDT': 15.312, 'RLCUSDT': 15.432, 'SCUSDT': 15.6, 'GALAUSDT': 15.722, 'RUNEUSDT': 15.795, 'ADAUSDT': 16.94, 'MTLUSDT': 17.18, 'BNBUSDT': 17.899, 'RVNUSDT': 18.169, 'EGLDUSDT': 18.879, 'LRCUSDT': 19.499, 'ANKRUSDT': 21.398, 'ETCUSDT': 23.51, 'DUSKUSDT': 23.55, 'AUDIOUSDT': 25.306, 'OGNUSDT': 25.524, 'GMTUSDT': 28.83, 'ENJUSDT': 33.073, 'STMXUSDT': 33.18, 'IOTXUSDT': 35.866, 'AVAXUSDT': 36.946, 'CHZUSDT': 37.128, 'CELRUSDT': 37.273, 'HNTUSDT': 38.779, 'CTSIUSDT': 41.108, 'HOTUSDT': 46.466, 'CHRUSDT': 61.091, 'MANAUSDT': 62.143, 'NKNUSDT': 70.636, 'ONEUSDT': 84.132, 'DENTUSDT': 99.973, 'DOGEUSDT': 121.447, 'SOLUSDT': 140.296, 'MATICUSDT': 161.846, 'FTMUSDT': 192.507, 'SANDUSDT': 203.219, 'AXSUSDT': 270.41

Currencies with a current drawdown greater than 80% from the highest point:

ICPUSDT': 0.022, 'FILUSDT': 0.043, 'BAKEUSDT': 0.046, 'TLMUSDT': 0.05, 'LITUSDT': 0.053, 'LINAUSDT': 0.054, 'JASMYUSDT': 0.056, 'ALPHAUSDT': 0.062, 'RAYUSDT': 0.062, 'GRTUSDT': 0.067, 'DENTUSDT': 0.068, 'RSRUSDT': 0.068, 'XEMUSDT': 0.068, 'UNFIUSDT': 0.072, 'DYDXUSDT': 0.074, 'SUSHIUSDT': 0.074, 'OGNUSDT': 0.074, 'COMPUSDT': 0.074, 'NKNUSDT': 0.078, 'SKLUSDT': 0.08, 'DGBUSDT': 0.081, 'RLCUSDT': 0.085, 'REEFUSDT': 0.086, 'BANDUSDT': 0.086, 'HOTUSDT': 0.092, 'SRMUSDT': 0.092, 'RENUSDT': 0.092, 'BTSUSDT': 0.093, 'THETAUSDT': 0.094, 'FLMUSDT': 0.094, 'EOSUSDT': 0.095, 'TRBUSDT': 0.095, 'SXPUSDT': 0.095, 'ATAUSDT': 0.096, 'NEOUSDT': 0.096, 'FLOWUSDT': 0.097, 'YFIUSDT': 0.101, 'BALUSDT': 0.106, 'MASKUSDT': 0.106, 'ONTUSDT': 0.108, 'CELRUSDT': 0.108, 'AUDIOUSDT': 0.108, 'SCUSDT': 0.11, 'GALAUSDT': 0.113, 'GTCUSDT': 0.117, 'CTSIUSDT': 0.117, 'STMXUSDT': 0.118, 'DARUSDT': 0.118, 'ALICEUSDT': 0.119, 'SNXUSDT': 0.124, 'FTMUSDT': 0.126, 'BCHUSDT': 0.127, 'SFPUSDT': 0.127, 'ROSEUSDT': 0.128, 'DOGEUSDT': 0.128, 'RVNUSDT': 0.129, 'OCEANUSDT': 0.129, 'VETUSDT': 0.13, 'KSMUSDT': 0.131, 'ICXUSDT': 0.131, 'UNIUSDT': 0.131, 'ONEUSDT': 0.131, '1INCHUSDT': 0.134, 'IOTAUSDT': 0.139, 'C98USDT': 0.139, 'WAVESUSDT': 0.14, 'DUSKUSDT': 0.141, 'LINKUSDT': 0.143, 'DASHUSDT': 0.143, 'OMGUSDT': 0.143, 'PEOPLEUSDT': 0.143, 'AXSUSDT': 0.15, 'ENJUSDT': 0.15, 'QTUMUSDT': 0.152, 'SHIBUSDT': 0.154, 'ZENUSDT': 0.154, 'BLZUSDT': 0.154, 'ANTUSDT': 0.155, 'XECUSDT': 0.155, 'CHZUSDT': 0.158, 'RUNEUSDT': 0.163, 'ENSUSDT': 0.165, 'LRCUSDT': 0.167, 'CHRUSDT': 0.168, 'IOTXUSDT': 0.174, 'TOMOUSDT': 0.176, 'ALGOUSDT': 0.177, 'EGLDUSDT': 0.177, 'ARUSDT': 0.178, 'LTCUSDT': 0.178, 'HNTUSDT': 0.18, 'LPTUSDT': 0.181, 'SOLUSDT': 0.183, 'ARPAUSDT': 0.184, 'BELUSDT': 0.184, 'ETCUSDT': 0.186, 'ZRXUSDT': 0.187, 'AAVEUSDT': 0.187, 'CVCUSDT': 0.188, 'STORJUSDT': 0.189, 'COTIUSDT': 0.19, 'CELOUSDT': 0.191, 'SANDUSDT': 0.191, 'ADAUSDT': 0.192, 'HBARUSDT': 0.194, 'DOTUSDT': 0.195, 'XLMUSDT': 0.195

#Download closing prices for all trading pairs
start_date = '2021-1-1'
end_date = '2022-05-30'
period = '1d'
df_all = pd.DataFrame(index=pd.date_range(start=start_date, end=end_date, freq=period),columns=symbols)
for i in range(len(symbols)):
    #print(symbols[i])
    symbol = symbols[i]
    df_s = GetKlines(symbol=symbol,start=start_date,end=end_date,period=period,base='api',v='v3')
    df_all[symbol] = df_s[~df_s.index.duplicated(keep='first')].close
#Index changes
df_norm = df_all/df_all.fillna(method='bfill').iloc[0] #Normalization
df_norm.mean(axis=1).plot(figsize=(15,6),grid=True);
png
#The highest increase over the beginning of the year
max_up = df_all.max()/df_all.fillna(method='bfill').iloc[0]
print(max_up.map(lambda x:round(x,3)).sort_values().to_dict())
{'JASMYUSDT': 1.0, 'ICPUSDT': 1.0, 'LINAUSDT': 1.0, 'WOOUSDT': 1.0, 'GALUSDT': 1.0, 'PEOPLEUSDT': 1.0, 'XECUSDT': 1.026, 'ENSUSDT': 1.032, 'TLMUSDT': 1.039, 'IMXUSDT': 1.099, 'FLOWUSDT': 1.155, 'ATAUSDT': 1.216, 'DARUSDT': 1.261, 'ALICEUSDT': 1.312, 'BNXUSDT': 1.522, 'API3USDT': 1.732, 'GTCUSDT': 1.833, 'KLAYUSDT': 1.891, 'BAKEUSDT': 1.892, 'DYDXUSDT': 2.062, 'SHIBUSDT': 2.281, 'BTCUSDT': 2.302, 'MASKUSDT': 2.396, 'SFPUSDT': 2.74, 'LPTUSDT': 2.75, 'APEUSDT': 2.783, 'ARUSDT': 2.928, 'CELOUSDT': 2.951, 'ZILUSDT': 2.999, 'LTCUSDT': 3.072, 'SNXUSDT': 3.266, 'XEMUSDT': 3.555, 'XMRUSDT': 3.564, 'YFIUSDT': 3.794, 'BANDUSDT': 3.812, 'RAYUSDT': 3.924, 'REEFUSDT': 4.184, 'ANTUSDT': 4.205, 'XTZUSDT': 4.339, 'CTKUSDT': 4.352, 'LITUSDT': 4.38, 'RSRUSDT': 4.407, 'LINKUSDT': 4.412, 'BCHUSDT': 4.527, 'DASHUSDT': 5.037, 'BALUSDT': 5.172, 'OCEANUSDT': 5.277, 'EOSUSDT': 5.503, 'RENUSDT': 5.538, 'XLMUSDT': 5.563, 'TOMOUSDT': 5.567, 'ZECUSDT': 5.654, 'COMPUSDT': 5.87, 'DGBUSDT': 5.948, 'ALGOUSDT': 5.981, 'ONTUSDT': 5.997, 'BELUSDT': 6.101, 'TRXUSDT': 6.116, 'ZRXUSDT': 6.135, 'GRTUSDT': 6.45, '1INCHUSDT': 6.479, 'DOTUSDT': 6.502, 'ETHUSDT': 6.596, 'KAVAUSDT': 6.687, 'ICXUSDT': 6.74, 'SUSHIUSDT': 6.848, 'AAVEUSDT': 6.931, 'BTSUSDT': 6.961, 'KNCUSDT': 6.966, 'C98USDT': 7.091, 'THETAUSDT': 7.222, 'ATOMUSDT': 7.553, 'OMGUSDT': 7.556, 'SXPUSDT': 7.681, 'UNFIUSDT': 7.696, 'XRPUSDT': 7.726, 'TRBUSDT': 8.241, 'BLZUSDT': 8.434, 'NEOUSDT': 8.491, 'FLMUSDT': 8.506, 'KSMUSDT': 8.571, 'FILUSDT': 8.591, 'IOTAUSDT': 8.616, 'BATUSDT': 8.647, 'ARPAUSDT': 9.055, 'UNIUSDT': 9.104, 'WAVESUSDT': 9.106, 'MKRUSDT': 10.294, 'CRVUSDT': 10.513, 'STORJUSDT': 10.674, 'SKLUSDT': 11.009, 'CVCUSDT': 11.026, 'SRMUSDT': 11.031, 'QTUMUSDT': 12.066, 'ALPHAUSDT': 12.103, 'ZENUSDT': 12.631, 'VETUSDT': 13.296, 'ROSEUSDT': 13.429, 'FTTUSDT': 13.705, 'IOSTUSDT': 13.786, 'COTIUSDT': 13.958, 'NEARUSDT': 14.855, 'HBARUSDT': 15.312, 'RLCUSDT': 15.432, 'SCUSDT': 15.6, 'GALAUSDT': 15.722, 'RUNEUSDT': 15.795, 'ADAUSDT': 16.94, 'MTLUSDT': 17.18, 'BNBUSDT': 17.899, 'RVNUSDT': 18.169, 'EGLDUSDT': 18.879, 'LRCUSDT': 19.499, 'ANKRUSDT': 21.398, 'ETCUSDT': 23.51, 'DUSKUSDT': 23.55, 'AUDIOUSDT': 25.306, 'OGNUSDT': 25.524, 'GMTUSDT': 28.83, 'ENJUSDT': 33.073, 'STMXUSDT': 33.18, 'IOTXUSDT': 35.866, 'AVAXUSDT': 36.946, 'CHZUSDT': 37.128, 'CELRUSDT': 37.273, 'HNTUSDT': 38.779, 'CTSIUSDT': 41.108, 'HOTUSDT': 46.466, 'CHRUSDT': 61.091, 'MANAUSDT': 62.143, 'NKNUSDT': 70.636, 'ONEUSDT': 84.132, 'DENTUSDT': 99.973, 'DOGEUSDT': 121.447, 'SOLUSDT': 140.296, 'MATICUSDT': 161.846, 'FTMUSDT': 192.507, 'SANDUSDT': 203.219, 'AXSUSDT': 270.41}
#Current maximum backtest
draw_down = df_all.iloc[-1]/df_all.max()
print(draw_down.map(lambda x:round(x,3)).sort_values().to_dict())
{'ICPUSDT': 0.022, 'FILUSDT': 0.043, 'BAKEUSDT': 0.046, 'TLMUSDT': 0.05, 'LITUSDT': 0.053, 'LINAUSDT': 0.054, 'JASMYUSDT': 0.056, 'ALPHAUSDT': 0.062, 'RAYUSDT': 0.062, 'GRTUSDT': 0.067, 'DENTUSDT': 0.068, 'RSRUSDT': 0.068, 'XEMUSDT': 0.068, 'UNFIUSDT': 0.072, 'DYDXUSDT': 0.074, 'SUSHIUSDT': 0.074, 'OGNUSDT': 0.074, 'COMPUSDT': 0.074, 'NKNUSDT': 0.078, 'SKLUSDT': 0.08, 'DGBUSDT': 0.081, 'RLCUSDT': 0.085, 'REEFUSDT': 0.086, 'BANDUSDT': 0.086, 'HOTUSDT': 0.092, 'SRMUSDT': 0.092, 'RENUSDT': 0.092, 'BTSUSDT': 0.093, 'THETAUSDT': 0.094, 'FLMUSDT': 0.094, 'EOSUSDT': 0.095, 'TRBUSDT': 0.095, 'SXPUSDT': 0.095, 'ATAUSDT': 0.096, 'NEOUSDT': 0.096, 'FLOWUSDT': 0.097, 'YFIUSDT': 0.101, 'BALUSDT': 0.106, 'MASKUSDT': 0.106, 'ONTUSDT': 0.108, 'CELRUSDT': 0.108, 'AUDIOUSDT': 0.108, 'SCUSDT': 0.11, 'GALAUSDT': 0.113, 'GTCUSDT': 0.117, 'CTSIUSDT': 0.117, 'STMXUSDT': 0.118, 'DARUSDT': 0.118, 'ALICEUSDT': 0.119, 'SNXUSDT': 0.124, 'FTMUSDT': 0.126, 'BCHUSDT': 0.127, 'SFPUSDT': 0.127, 'ROSEUSDT': 0.128, 'DOGEUSDT': 0.128, 'RVNUSDT': 0.129, 'OCEANUSDT': 0.129, 'VETUSDT': 0.13, 'KSMUSDT': 0.131, 'ICXUSDT': 0.131, 'UNIUSDT': 0.131, 'ONEUSDT': 0.131, '1INCHUSDT': 0.134, 'IOTAUSDT': 0.139, 'C98USDT': 0.139, 'WAVESUSDT': 0.14, 'DUSKUSDT': 0.141, 'LINKUSDT': 0.143, 'DASHUSDT': 0.143, 'OMGUSDT': 0.143, 'PEOPLEUSDT': 0.143, 'AXSUSDT': 0.15, 'ENJUSDT': 0.15, 'QTUMUSDT': 0.152, 'SHIBUSDT': 0.154, 'ZENUSDT': 0.154, 'BLZUSDT': 0.154, 'ANTUSDT': 0.155, 'XECUSDT': 0.155, 'CHZUSDT': 0.158, 'RUNEUSDT': 0.163, 'ENSUSDT': 0.165, 'LRCUSDT': 0.167, 'CHRUSDT': 0.168, 'IOTXUSDT': 0.174, 'TOMOUSDT': 0.176, 'ALGOUSDT': 0.177, 'EGLDUSDT': 0.177, 'ARUSDT': 0.178, 'LTCUSDT': 0.178, 'HNTUSDT': 0.18, 'LPTUSDT': 0.181, 'SOLUSDT': 0.183, 'ARPAUSDT': 0.184, 'BELUSDT': 0.184, 'ETCUSDT': 0.186, 'ZRXUSDT': 0.187, 'AAVEUSDT': 0.187, 'CVCUSDT': 0.188, 'STORJUSDT': 0.189, 'COTIUSDT': 0.19, 'CELOUSDT': 0.191, 'SANDUSDT': 0.191, 'ADAUSDT': 0.192, 'HBARUSDT': 0.194, 'DOTUSDT': 0.195, 'XLMUSDT': 0.195, 'AVAXUSDT': 0.206, 'ANKRUSDT': 0.207, 'MTLUSDT': 0.208, 'MANAUSDT': 0.209, 'CRVUSDT': 0.213, 'API3USDT': 0.221, 'IOSTUSDT': 0.227, 'XRPUSDT': 0.228, 'BATUSDT': 0.228, 'MKRUSDT': 0.229, 'MATICUSDT': 0.229, 'CTKUSDT': 0.233, 'ZILUSDT': 0.233, 'WOOUSDT': 0.234, 'ATOMUSDT': 0.237, 'KLAYUSDT': 0.239, 'XTZUSDT': 0.245, 'IMXUSDT': 0.278, 'NEARUSDT': 0.285, 'GALUSDT': 0.299, 'APEUSDT': 0.305, 'ZECUSDT': 0.309, 'KAVAUSDT': 0.31, 'GMTUSDT': 0.327, 'FTTUSDT': 0.366, 'KNCUSDT': 0.401, 'ETHUSDT': 0.416, 'XMRUSDT': 0.422, 'BTCUSDT': 0.47, 'BNBUSDT': 0.476, 'TRXUSDT': 0.507, 'BNXUSDT': 0.64}

First of all, we use the simplest code to simulate the situation of falling all the way down, and see the liquidation price of different position values. Since the strategy always holds a long position, there is no risk in going up. The initial capital is 1000, the currency price is 1, and the adjustment ratio is 0.01. The results are as follows. It can be seen that the risk of long liquidation is not low. With 1.5 times leverage, it can resist a 50% decline. Given the current relative bottom situation, it is an acceptable risk.

Value of positionsLong position price
3000.035
5000.133
8000.285
10000.362
15000.51
20000.599
30000.711
50000.81
100000.904
for Hold_value in [300,500,800,1000,1500,2000,3000,5000,10000]:
    amount = Hold_value/1
    hold_price = 1
    margin = 1000
    Pct = 0.01
    i = 0
    while margin > 0:
        i += 1
        if i>500:
            break
        buy_price = (1-Pct)*Hold_value/amount
        buy_amount = Hold_value*Pct/buy_price
        hold_price = (amount * hold_price + buy_amount * buy_price) / (buy_amount + amount)
        amount += buy_amount
        margin = 1000 + amount * (buy_price - hold_price)
    print(Hold_value, round(buy_price,3))
300 0.035
500 0.133
800 0.285
1000 0.362
1500 0.51
2000 0.599
3000 0.711
5000 0.81
10000 0.904
#Still using the original backtesting engine
class Exchange:

    def __init__(self, trade_symbols, fee=0.0004, initial_balance=10000):
        self.initial_balance = initial_balance #Initial assets
        self.fee = fee
        self.trade_symbols = trade_symbols
        self.account = {'USDT':{'realised_profit':0, 'unrealised_profit':0, 'total':initial_balance, 'fee':0}}
        for symbol in trade_symbols:
            self.account[symbol] = {'amount':0, 'hold_price':0, 'value':0, 'price':0, 'realised_profit':0,'unrealised_profit':0,'fee':0}

    def Trade(self, symbol, direction, price, amount):

        cover_amount = 0 if direction*self.account[symbol]['amount'] >=0 else min(abs(self.account[symbol]['amount']), amount)
        open_amount = amount - cover_amount
        self.account['USDT']['realised_profit'] -= price*amount*self.fee #Deduct the handling fees
        self.account['USDT']['fee'] += price*amount*self.fee
        self.account[symbol]['fee'] += price*amount*self.fee

        if cover_amount > 0: #Close the position first
            self.account['USDT']['realised_profit'] += -direction*(price - self.account[symbol]['hold_price'])*cover_amount  #Profits
            self.account[symbol]['realised_profit'] += -direction*(price - self.account[symbol]['hold_price'])*cover_amount

            self.account[symbol]['amount'] -= -direction*cover_amount
            self.account[symbol]['hold_price'] = 0 if self.account[symbol]['amount'] == 0 else self.account[symbol]['hold_price']

        if open_amount > 0:
            total_cost = self.account[symbol]['hold_price']*direction*self.account[symbol]['amount'] + price*open_amount
            total_amount = direction*self.account[symbol]['amount']+open_amount

            self.account[symbol]['hold_price'] = total_cost/total_amount
            self.account[symbol]['amount'] += direction*open_amount


    def Buy(self, symbol, price, amount):
        self.Trade(symbol, 1, price, amount)

    def Sell(self, symbol, price, amount):
        self.Trade(symbol, -1, price, amount)

    def Update(self, close_price): #Update of assets
        self.account['USDT']['unrealised_profit'] = 0
        for symbol in self.trade_symbols:
            self.account[symbol]['unrealised_profit'] = (close_price[symbol] - self.account[symbol]['hold_price'])*self.account[symbol]['amount']
            self.account[symbol]['price'] = close_price[symbol]
            self.account[symbol]['value'] = abs(self.account[symbol]['amount'])*close_price[symbol]
            self.account['USDT']['unrealised_profit'] += self.account[symbol]['unrealised_profit']
        self.account['USDT']['total'] = round(self.account['USDT']['realised_profit'] + self.initial_balance + self.account['USDT']['unrealised_profit'],6)

First of all, we backtest the performance of the TRX balance strategy. The maximum retracement of TRX in this round of bear market is relatively small, so it has certain specificity. The data is selected from the 5min K-line from 2021 to the present, with an initial capital of 1000, the adjustment ratio is 0.01, the position value is 2000, and the handling fee is 0.0002.

The initial price of TRX was 0.02676U, and the highest price during the period reached 0.18U. It is currently around 0.08U, and the fluctuations are very violent. If you run the long-short grid strategy at the beginning, it is difficult to escape the result of short-selling. The balance strategies are less of a problem.

The final return of the backtest is 4524U, which is very close to the return of TRX at 0.18. The leverage is lower than 2 times from the beginning and finally lower than 0.4, and the possibility of liquidation is also getting lower and lowerr, during which there can be an opportunity to increase the value of the position. But below 2000U is always the same income. This is also one of the disadvantages of the balance strategy.

symbol = 'TRXUSDT'
df_trx = GetKlines(symbol=symbol,start='2021-1-1',end='2022-5-30',period='5m')
df_trx.close.plot(figsize=(15,6),grid=True);
png
#TRX balance strategy backtest
hold_value = 2000
pct = 0.01
e = Exchange([symbol], fee=0.0002, initial_balance=1000)
init_price =  df_trx.iloc[0].open
res_list = [] #For storing intermediate results
e.Buy(symbol,init_price,hold_value/init_price)
e.Update({symbol:init_price})
for row in df_trx.itertuples():
    buy_price = (1-pct)*hold_value/e.account[symbol]['amount']
    sell_price = (1+pct)*hold_value/e.account[symbol]['amount']

    while row.low < buy_price:
        e.Buy(symbol,buy_price,pct*hold_value/buy_price)
        e.Update({symbol:row.close})
        buy_price = (1-pct)*hold_value/e.account[symbol]['amount']
        sell_price = (1+pct)*hold_value/e.account[symbol]['amount']
    while row.high > sell_price:
        e.Sell(symbol,sell_price,pct*hold_value/sell_price)
        e.Update({symbol:row.close})
        buy_price = (1-pct)*hold_value/e.account[symbol]['amount']
        sell_price = (1+pct)*hold_value/e.account[symbol]['amount']
    if int(row.time)%(60*60*1000) == 0:
        e.Update({symbol:row.close})
        res_list.append([row.time, row.close, e.account[symbol]['amount'],e.account[symbol]['amount']*row.close, e.account['USDT']['total']-e.initial_balance])
res_trx = pd.DataFrame(data=res_list, columns=['time','price','amount','value','profit'])
res_trx.index = pd.to_datetime(res_trx.time,unit='ms')
print(pct,e.account['USDT']['realised_profit']+e.account['USDT']['unrealised_profit'] ,round(e.account['USDT']['fee'],0))
0.01 4524.226998288555 91.0
#Profit
res_trx.profit.plot(figsize=(15,6),grid=True);
png
#Actual leverage of occupancy
(res_trx.value/(res_trx.profit+1000)).plot(figsize=(15,6),grid=True);
png

Let's backtest WAVES again. This currency is quite special. It rose from 6U to 60U at the beginning, and finally fell back to the current 8U. The final profit is 4945, far more than the profit of holding the currency unchanged.

symbol = 'WAVESUSDT'
df_waves = GetKlines(symbol=symbol,start='2021-1-1',end='2022-5-30',period='5m')
df_waves.close.plot(figsize=(15,6),grid=True);
png
#TWAVES balanced strategy backtest
hold_value = 2000
pct = 0.01
e = Exchange([symbol], fee=0.0002, initial_balance=1000)
init_price =  df_waves.iloc[0].open
res_list = [] #For storing intermediate results
e.Buy(symbol,init_price,hold_value/init_price)
e.Update({symbol:init_price})
for row in df_waves.itertuples():
    buy_price = (1-pct)*hold_value/e.account[symbol]['amount']
    sell_price = (1+pct)*hold_value/e.account[symbol]['amount']

    while row.low < buy_price:
        e.Buy(symbol,buy_price,pct*hold_value/buy_price)
        e.Update({symbol:row.close})
        buy_price = (1-pct)*hold_value/e.account[symbol]['amount']
        sell_price = (1+pct)*hold_value/e.account[symbol]['amount']
    while row.high > sell_price:
        e.Sell(symbol,sell_price,pct*hold_value/sell_price)
        e.Update({symbol:row.close})
        buy_price = (1-pct)*hold_value/e.account[symbol]['amount']
        sell_price = (1+pct)*hold_value/e.account[symbol]['amount']
    if int(row.time)%(60*60*1000) == 0:
        e.Update({symbol:row.close})
        res_list.append([row.time, row.close, e.account[symbol]['amount'],e.account[symbol]['amount']*row.close, e.account['USDT']['total']-e.initial_balance])
res_waves = pd.DataFrame(data=res_list, columns=['time','price','amount','value','profit'])
res_waves.index = pd.to_datetime(res_waves.time,unit='ms')
print(pct,e.account['USDT']['realised_profit']+e.account['USDT']['unrealised_profit'] ,round(e.account['USDT']['fee'],0))
0.01 4945.149323437233 178.0
df_waves.profit.plot(figsize=(15,6),grid=True);
png

By the way, the performance of the grid strategy is backtested, the grid spacing is 0.01, and the grid value is 10. In the case of nearly 10 times of the increase, both WAVES and TRX have experienced huge drawdowns. Among them, WAVES has withdrawn 5000U, and TRX has also exceeded 3000U. If the initial capital is small, the positions alomst will be liquidated.

#Grid strategy
pct = 0.01
value = 10*pct/0.01
e = Exchange([symbol], fee=0.0002, initial_balance=1000)
init_price =  df_waves.iloc[0].open
res_list = [] #For storing intermediate results
for row in df_waves.itertuples():
    buy_price = (value / pct - value) / (value / (pct * init_price) + e.account[symbol]['amount']) 
    sell_price = (value / pct + value) / (value / (pct *init_price) + e.account[symbol]['amount'])

    while row.low < buy_price:
        e.Buy(symbol,buy_price,value/buy_price)
        e.Update({symbol:row.close})
        buy_price = (value / pct - value) / (value / (pct * init_price) + e.account[symbol]['amount']) #The buy order price, since it is a pending order transaction, is also the final matching price=
    while row.high > sell_price:
        e.Sell(symbol,sell_price,value/sell_price)
        e.Update({symbol:row.close})
        sell_price = (value / pct + value) / (value / (pct *init_price) + e.account[symbol]['amount'])
    if int(row.time)%(60*60*1000) == 0:
        e.Update({symbol:row.close})
        res_list.append([row.time, row.close, e.account[symbol]['amount'],e.account[symbol]['amount']*row.close, e.account['USDT']['total']-e.initial_balance])
res_waves_net = pd.DataFrame(data=res_list, columns=['time','price','amount','value','profit'])
res_waves_net.index = pd.to_datetime(res_waves_net.time,unit='ms')
print(pct,e.account['USDT']['realised_profit']+e.account['USDT']['unrealised_profit'] ,round(e.account['USDT']['fee'],0))
0.01 1678.0516101975015 70.0
res_waves_net.profit.plot(figsize=(15,6),grid=True);
png
#Grid strategy
pct = 0.01
value = 10*pct/0.01
e = Exchange([symbol], fee=0.0002, initial_balance=1000)
init_price =  df_trx.iloc[0].open
res_list = [] #For storing intermediate results
for row in df_trx.itertuples():
    buy_price = (value / pct - value) / (value / (pct * init_price) + e.account[symbol]['amount']) 
    sell_price = (value / pct + value) / (value / (pct *init_price) + e.account[symbol]['amount'])

    while row.low < buy_price:
        e.Buy(symbol,buy_price,value/buy_price)
        e.Update({symbol:row.close})
        buy_price = (value / pct - value) / (value / (pct * init_price) + e.account[symbol]['amount']) 
    while row.high > sell_price:
        e.Sell(symbol,sell_price,value/sell_price)
        e.Update({symbol:row.close})
        sell_price = (value / pct + value) / (value / (pct *init_price) + e.account[symbol]['amount'])
    if int(row.time)%(60*60*1000) == 0:
        e.Update({symbol:row.close})
        res_list.append([row.time, row.close, e.account[symbol]['amount'],e.account[symbol]['amount']*row.close, e.account['USDT']['total']-e.initial_balance])
res_trx_net = pd.DataFrame(data=res_list, columns=['time','price','amount','value','profit'])
res_trx_net.index = pd.to_datetime(res_trx_net.time,unit='ms')
print(pct,e.account['USDT']['realised_profit']+e.account['USDT']['unrealised_profit'] ,round(e.account['USDT']['fee'],0))
0.01 -161.06952570521656 37.0
res_trx_net.profit.plot(figsize=(15,6),grid=True);
png

Summary

This time, the backtest analysis used the 5min K-line, the fluctuations in the middle is not completely simulated, so the actual profits should be slightly higher. Overall, the balance strategy bears relatively small risk, not afraid of skyrocketing, and there is no need to adjust the parameters, it is relatively easy to use and suitable for novice users. The grid strategy is very sensitive to the initial price setting and requires some judgment of the market. In the long run, the risk of going short is high. The current round of bear market has been stable at the bottom for some time, many currencies are currently down more than 90% from their highs, if you are optimistic about some currencis, this is a good time to enter the market, you may want to open a balance strategy to buy the bottom, add a little leverage and get profits from volatility and price increase.

The Binance Thousand League Battle will provide free access to the perpetual balance strategy, and everyone is welcome to experience it.

Read the whole story
miohtama
142 days ago
reply
Helsinki, Finland
Share this story
Delete

How did the algorithm pegging TerraUSD stablecoins to USD fail?

1 Share

This month the TerraUSD stablecoin and associated Luna reserve cryptocurrency crashed and lost most of its value. About $45 billion in market capitalization vanished within a week.

Apparently there was some sort of sell-off, but then TerraUSD was supposed to be a stablecoin, being pegged to the US dollar via a complex algorithmic relationship. That algorithm must have failed.

How has it failed? How fragile was this pegging of a cryptocurrency to the USD?

I guess that different currencies can ultimately never be pegged perfectly and a stablecoin is a bit of a misnomer, but still I wonder how easy it might have been to break this pegging.

Read the whole story
miohtama
190 days ago
reply
Helsinki, Finland
Share this story
Delete

How Africa Can Navigate Growing Monetary Policy Challenges

1 Share

By Tobias Adrian, Gaston Gelos, and David Hofman

Tools such as foreign exchange intervention can ease the effects of shocks but need to be carefully weighed against potential longer-term costs.

Sub-Saharan African countries face important monetary policy challenges. The pandemic dented economic growth, and even now the recovery is likely to leave output below the pre-crisis trend this year. Several countries in the region have also seen inflation increase, a challenge that is in some cases compounded by fiscal dominance emanating from high public debt levels.

Many of these economies may also face capital outflows as the major central banks in advanced economies withdraw policy stimulus and raise interest rates in the period ahead. The economic impact of the conflict raging in Ukraine—including the attendant sharp rise in energy and food prices—is likely to further intensify the challenges.

How should countries in sub-Saharan Africa manage this volatile environment?

Exchange rate considerations

Countries with managed or free-floating exchange rate regimes generally benefit from allowing currencies to adjust, while focusing monetary policy on domestic objectives.

That said, many countries in sub-Saharan Africa with floating exchange rate regimes have characteristics and vulnerabilities that can limit the benefits from fully flexible rates. For instance, dominant currency pricing (i.e., rigid export prices in US dollar terms) can weaken the beneficial trade adjustments associated with flexible rates.

Moreover, shallow markets (i.e., markets with limited liquidity) can amplify exchange rate movements and yield excessive volatility. Foreign exchange markets tend to be shallow in many countries in the region, as evidenced by wide spreads between bid and ask prices.

High foreign-currency denominated liabilities are also a key vulnerability in several economies. In the presence of large currency mismatches on balance sheets, exchange rate depreciations can undermine the financial health of corporates and households. And weak central bank credibility can cause exchange rate changes to have a bigger effect on inflation (high passthrough). Such currency mismatches and high passthrough can cause output and inflation to move in opposite directions following shocks, thereby worsening the tradeoffs that policymakers face.

There is also evidence that the exchange rate passthrough in low-income countries is substantially higher than it is in more advanced economies, which poses a particular problem given the often heavy dependance on food and energy imports.

How should countries that exhibit such vulnerabilities manage their policy responses?

First, it remains important to reduce the vulnerabilities over time. This includes reducing balance sheet mismatches; developing money and foreign currency markets; and reducing exchange rate passthrough by building monetary policy credibility. Many of these are areas where IMF technical assistance can help.

But in the near-term—while vulnerabilities remain high—the IMF’s work toward an Integrated Policy Framework suggests that using additional tools may help ease short-term policy trade-offs when certain shocks hit. In particular, where reserves are adequate and these tools are available, foreign exchange intervention, macroprudential policy measures and capital flow measures can help enhance monetary policy autonomy, improve financial and price stability, and reduce output volatility.

For instance, simulations with the framework’s models suggest that in response to a sharp tightening of global financial conditions or other negative external financial shock, a country exhibiting such vulnerabilities could improve immediate economic outcomes by using foreign exchange intervention to reduce exchange rate depreciation and thereby limit the inflationary impact and reduce negative balance sheet effects. This results in higher output and lower inflation than would have been feasible without the use of the additional policy instrument.

For central banks considering such policies, however, a few important qualifiers are in order. Importantly, the tools should not be used to maintain an over- or undervalued exchange rate. Moreover, while additional tools can help alleviate short-term tradeoffs, this benefit needs to be carefully weighed against potential longer-term costs. Such costs may include, for instance, reduced incentives for market development and appropriate risk management in the private sector.

Communicating about the joint use of multiple tools in a more complex framework can be very challenging, too, and expanding the set of policy options may subject central banks to political pressures. Central banks will thus need to weigh the benefits against potential negative impacts on their own transparency and credibility, especially in circumstances where policy frameworks are not yet well established.

We want to hear from you!

Click here for a 3-question survey on IMFBlog.

 

Read the whole story
miohtama
240 days ago
reply
Helsinki, Finland
Share this story
Delete
Next Page of Stories